327 posts categorized "Guest Blogger" Feed

5 Things You May Not Know About IRS Form 990

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With over 300 pages of instructions and 300 possible questions to answer, the IRS Form 990, Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax is a complex and extensive form. It is filed annually by most exempt organizations, including charities. Here are five things you may not know or may have forgotten about Form 990:   

  1. It is a misnomer to call Form 990 an “income tax return.” There is no income tax calculation in the core Form 990 or within any of the accompanying schedules. The fact that it is not an income tax return becomes very important when attempting to apply the Internal Revenue Code to the filing of Form 990. Generally, where the Internal Revenue Code and the related regulations only reference an “income tax return,” the code or regulation in question will not normally apply to Form 990. It is very important, however, to remember that organizations subject to unrelated business income taxes (UBIT) file a separate Form 990-T, Exempt Organization Business Income Tax Return, which can be subject to the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations related to the filing of an income tax return.

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Six Tips for Valuation Experts in High Stakes Divorces

Man signing divorce papersThe headlines announcing Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie’s divorce were just the latest in a slew of stories about celebrity splits. In fact, there are more than 800,000 divorces and annulments in the United States each year, according to government statistics. Based on my experience performing valuations in many high-profile divorces, much of the advice I’d offer to my fellow practitioners applies whether you’re working with Brad and Angelina or the divorcing, high-powered owner of a local business. Below are my top tips:

  1. Determine what’s at stake and how location matters. The assets in a divorce will typically include cash, retirement funds or a home. Often, the largest asset at stake is a closely held business. That can be a professional practice – if one or both partners are, say, a lawyer, physician or accountant – or an operating entity, such as a retailer, wholesaler, manufacturing business or a farm. The complexity of the engagement can be affected by the jurisdiction in which the case is being heard and can depend on state law. Be prepared, as the legal environment may produce unexpected complexities.

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6 Ways to Ease Audit Workload Compression during Busy Season

Shutterstock_270607559With the start of busy season just around the corner, planning is on most practitioners’ minds. I have recently spoken with many professionals about ways they jumpstart their upcoming audits. Outlined below are some activities to begin now that will make your busy season a little less hectic.  

Ask your clients to fill out background information forms. If there have been changes to their management, ownership structure or board of directors, ask clients to document them before busy season begins. Also, if your client has entered a new market, they should note these changes as well. You can provide your clients with the prior year documentation and transfer information to the new form as soon as it is available.

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Top 3 Takeaways on FASB’s New Not-for-Profit Standard


Shutterstock_276224309Are you nervous about implementing the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s new not-for-profit standard? At 270 pages in length, it is understandable that one would find it daunting and would be unsure of where to begin. Even though the standard does not go into effect until 2018 for most not-for-profits, you and your clients need to be thinking about the standard and your implementation plan now.

To start my education, I reviewed this AICPA Insights blog post from FASB member Larry Smith that provides an overview of the new standard. I also recently attended the webcast, “Applying FASB’s New Not-for-Profit Financial Statement Standard,” which was hosted by the AICPA’s Not-for-Profit Section team. I learned some practical tips and received information I can share with my clients.

Here were my top three takeaways from an implementation perspective:

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5 Essential Controls for Charities during the Holiday Giving Season

Shutterstock_395826034For not-for-profit leaders, strong controls for fraud are especially important during this time of year. The unofficial kickoff of the charitable giving season occurs on Giving Tuesday, which takes place the Tuesday following Thanksgiving, Black Friday and Cyber Monday here in the United States. In my state, Minnesota, we have a “Give to the Max Day” to encourage giving to nonprofits and schools before Thanksgiving.  A 2015 Charitable Giving Report produced by Blackbaud noted that of the not-for-profits surveyed, 17% of their contributions were received in December.  

Here are five things small organizations can do to protect themselves and ensure that the influx of contributions received this holiday season support programs, not fraudsters:

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3 Potential Financial Reporting Errors Found at Not-for-Profit Organizations

Shutterstock_388167307As a CPA who has been in public practice for many years, I know the challenges that not-for-profit organizations face in financial reporting, and, more specifically, in applying generally accepted accounting principles.

Financial statements provide a compelling picture of the not-for-profit entity’s activities. However, in my experience, there are potential financial reporting concerns not-for-profit organizations need to be aware of to make sure that picture is conveyed properly. Here are three errors that come to mind.

  1. Gross Reporting of Revenues and Expenses Related to Fund-Raising Activities.

GAAP generally requires that an organization report gross amounts of revenues and expenses in its statement of activities. However, there are situations where the not-for-profit may receive proceeds from fundraising activities net of related fees. In these instances, the entity would not report the net amount as contribution revenue; rather, the amount of the donor’s contribution would be reported as contribution revenue, and the fees would be reported as fundraising expenses. Consider the following:

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Tax Due-Diligence Checklist for Sharing-Economy Clients

UberPeople have been sharing services and property, and generating money from it, for years. For example, someone with a spare bedroom might have posted a note on a bulletin board at the local grocery store or advertised in the local paper to find a tenant. But do we understand the tax implications of the shared economy? That’s where CPAs come in.

Today’s technology allows for easier publishing and access to a wider pool of people for matching offers and acceptances. Using Airbnb or similar sharing websites, the owner with a spare bedroom will find that short-term rentals are relatively simple to arrange. Yet that same owner is unlikely to know the full tax consequences of this convenient rental, so it will be up to the tax preparer to ask the right questions.

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Why CPAs Should Learn about Integrated Reporting

Shutterstock_217047778Integrated reporting <IR> is receiving a growing amount of coverage worldwide lately, from both academics and from the accounting profession, and this trend shows no sign of slowing down. Books, research articles, presentations and other publications that highlight the potential opportunities of integrated reporting are becoming commonplace. The International Integrated Reporting Council has developed a plethora of resources including case studies and reports that provide a solid introduction to this topic. But a fundamental question remains unanswered. In terms of day-to-day implementation and data that can be acted upon, what exactly is an integrated report, and what does it mean for the CPA profession?


What is it?

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Four Steps to a Happier, Successful “Business” Retirement


Shutterstock_339672998As CPA financial planners and advisers, we spend a considerable amount of time addressing the technical aspects of IRAs, 401ks and defined benefit plans. We work to convert enterprise value into retirement assets. We consider diversification, funding strategies and tax implications.

Those issues are important, but it can be the personal and emotional aspects of helping your clients retire from their businesses that set you apart from other planners. Here are four critical steps to help you be a better partner to your clients who own a business.

Step One: Adjust the Conversation

The first step, and for many retirees the hardest one, is the mental adjustment of retiring after decades building a business and creating value. Then, one day, they sign a contract and turn those work responsibilities over to others.

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5 Tips for Becoming a Firm of the Future

Shutterstock_362297912 (1)Here’s a familiar scenario: A firm has been in business for decades, achieving success using a tried-and-true formula of providing high-quality work and great client service. As a new generation takes over and market demands change, however, the firm’s partners begin to wonder how they can grow the practice while maintaining the winning attributes that have made the firm what it is. They worry a major change will distract their team from the important business of serving clients—and eat up too much time and money.

That’s the situation my firm faced about five years ago. As the recession was coming to an end, the firm, which has been in business roughly 70 years, had about 25 people and around $3.5 million in revenues. Our culture had long been to work hard and play hard. We’ve held on to the spirit of camaraderie and the family environment our founders built, but as we moved forward into the millennium we hadn’t developed the internal structures we would need to manage growth. However, by making some strategic decisions, over the course of five years we have grown to a firm of 35 people and $5 million in revenues.

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3 Steps to a Secure Financial Future for Your Divorcing Clients

DivorceAnyone who has ever been through, or witnessed, a divorce knows that the pain of separating isn’t just emotional—it’s also financial. CPA financial planners may often feel at a loss as to what advice or guidance to offer distraught clients.

Let’s say your client Kate, age 50, calls in tears to tell you that her husband of 25 years, a high-level executive, wants a divorce.

“He wants to avoid using attorneys,” she says. “He made me an offer yesterday: He keeps all his retirement savings and I keep mine. I get the ski lodge; he gets the apartment in the city. We split cash and investments. I really don’t want to make him angry, but my own retirement will be so small. Is his offer enough?”

We all want what’s best for our clients and answering this complicated question will take some research. However, the most important factor is to avoid any conflict of interest. If you were advising the couple before the split, you may need a disclosure, a waiver or even a new engagement letter.

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5 Ways to Make the Most of Mentoring

Shutterstock_341095673A successful mentoring relationship, like all relationships in life, is about give and take. But in order to be successful, both mentor and mentee need to give genuine input. It isn’t as simple as the mentor giving and the mentee taking. Considering the value of mentoring, what can mentees do to guarantee they’re getting the greatest advantage from the relationship?

Be sure to opt in. Everyone’s schedule is busy, and mentoring may seem like something that’s easy to delete from a crowded calendar. It’s a mistake to underestimate the importance of support, however. Among other things, a mentor can help you assess your priorities, which can ensure your time is spent wisely and more productively.

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3 Steps to Maintain Independence When Preparing Financial Statements

Shutterstock_302730485Consider this scenario: A longtime tax client of yours approaches you. They are interested in starting an online gaming platform with a colleague and have already landed a significant contract. The future of this business appears bright. A local bank has agreed to extend them a $75,000 line of credit, contingent on certain ratios and providing monthly financial statements and copies of all tax filings. You client asks you if you would be interested in performing nonattest services on their behalf. They are looking for a CPA to prepare the new venture’s monthly financial statements for the bank so the bank can monitor compliance with its ratio requirements, while the client maintains the books.

The current loan covenant only calls for a complete set of financial statements, classifying the engagement as a nonattest service. You do not need to be independent to prepare your client’s financial statements, however, based on the new venture’s growth trajectory, you believe that at some point in the future, attest services will likely be needed. Because of this, you decide to take certain steps to maintain your independence in case your client’s needs change, and you are asked to provide a service that requires independence down the road. Below are three steps you take to maintain independence.

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4 Key Facts about the New FASB Not-for-Profit Standard

Shutterstock_413674186Are you ready for significant changes to the financial statements of not-for-profit organizations? 

The Financial Accounting Standards Board recently released Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-14 Not-for-Profit Entities (Topic 958): Presentation of Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Entities.  ASU 2016-14 is the result of a multi-year FASB project conducted to review the financial reporting model for not-for-profits that has been in place for approximately 20 years.  As a result of the review, the FASB identified several areas of the financial reporting model that needed improvements or updates to provide better information to those that rely on the financial statements issued by not-for-profits. 

The full standard spans 270 pages (view it here) but it is not as daunting as it may seem. Here are four key facts about the new standard to keep in mind:

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7 Key Communication Points for Your Clients with Extended Returns

SevenAs the final extension deadline of October 15 (for individual clients) approaches, it is hard to believe it is almost time to flip the calendar to another year. Although finalizing your client’s 2015 Form 1040 is the most pressing item on the agenda, it’s important to focus on year-end planning. The good news is that with the tax legislation signed last December, tax planning should be easier since many provisions were extended through 2016 (or longer) or made permanent.  However, this is a presidential election year, and there is uncertainty about how a political change might impact tax reform and/or legislation.

Let’s focus on the good news (and what we can do for our clients). Here are seven topics to discuss with your clients as you wrap up their 2015 returns that will provide them the extra client service that they expect and deserve.

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Drones on the Horizon for CPA Firms in 2017

DroneNew federal regulations mean CPA firms will have easier access to an unexpected tool for audits and inspections: flying robots.

Unmanned aircraft systems, commonly referred to as drones, have a wide range of commercial applications, including law enforcement and rescue operations. CPA firms are finding ways to use drones to audit and inspect land, agriculture and facilities as a safer and more cost effective alternative to manual inspections.

For the past several years, commercial drone use has been mostly limited to larger firms because of a burdensome and costly Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval process. But on August 29, a new FAA rule took effect that broadly authorizes commercial drone operations in the United States, giving CPA firms of all sizes an easier path to incorporating drones into their operations. For example, the new rule allows the commercial operation of drones under 35 pounds, whereas previous regulations mandated that commercial drone operators had to apply for a special license from the FAA.

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A Passion for Education Proves Perfect Formula for Ross Riskin, CPA/PFS

Ross Riskin Profile PictureMeet Ross Riskin, CPA/PFS, CCPS, vice president of Riskin & Riskin, PC in Orange, Conn. Ross is definitely not your typical CPA; he has a unique passion for helping college students and their families,  a direct hand in CPA education and a thoughtful take on incorporating the AICPA’s Essentials of Financial Planning curriculum into the classroom.

AICPA: You’re founder and managing member of Riskin Advisory, LLC, described on your website as “a college financial planning practice.” How are you helping students and their parents plan for college expenses?

Ross Riskin: I work with families and recent graduates to help them develop plans to save and pay for higher education expenses in the most financially efficient manner. I approach the college and education planning process from tax, financial aid, and cash flow planning perspectives. Whether a family is trying to navigate the complex financial aid process, a grandparent is trying to develop a funding plan for their grandchild, or a recent graduate is trying to come up with a game plan to tackle their student loan debt, I am happy to advise them about the best course of action.

AICPA: How does being a CPA and a PFS support your expertise in education planning?

RR: Being a practicing CPA has provided me with the educational and professional experience required to enhance my knowledge of tax planning. Obtaining the PFS credential has helped me approach college and education planning from the perspective of an accountant and an adviser in order to develop comprehensive solutions for clients to help them see the big “financial” picture. Education planning is an area that hasn’t really been a focal point of planning to the same degree that tax planning and investment planning have been, and I am dedicated to working each day as a CPA/PFS to shift that focus and help families plan and take action in a holistic way.

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The Secret to Quality Audits and Fine Wines? Quality Control

Vineyard“Quality means doing it right when no one is looking.”
Henry Ford

Browsing the internet and looking at websites of CPA firms I notice they pretty much all talk about being quality firms. We all believe we have quality, but just what is quality?

As I sit with my evening glass, I realize what draws us to a fine wine is the diligent process to produce the beverage we enjoy. The process for producing a fine wine is not unlike the accounting and auditing world. Indulge me as I demonstrate the similarities.

Winemakers must identify critical points in the process where problems can arise in order to  eliminate or minimize precursors for taints and faults, and then rectify any problems that still do occur. 

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Helping Clients Plan Ahead for College Expenses

College savingsAs the cost of undergraduate, graduate and professional education continues to soar, having enough money set aside to pay for college is no longer a “nice-to-have” component of financial planning. It is essential to devise a thoughtful, cohesive plan to keep clients on course toward achieving their financial goals, within the larger context of their financial situation, investment horizon, risk tolerance, and resources.

Helping clients understand how much to save based on their education goals prepares them for the cost of college. 

Six Considerations

In trying to approximate future college costs and the amount clients will need to save to pay the college costs of the future, you’ll need to help them make several assumptions and determinations:

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7 Key Facts on the FASB’s Revenue Recognition Standard


Shutterstock_348454145Transitioning to significantly new accounting guidance is always a critical process, and that’s particularly true with the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s Accounting Standards Update 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). Since the effective date for this important guidance has been postponed, CPAs and their clients can now make the most of the added time they need to begin understanding and preparing to apply the standard. Here are seven facts that CPAs should know about this key standard.

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2704 Regs May Eliminate Discount: Practitioners Must Plan Now


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Most practitioners are aware by now that the Treasury has proposed regulations under Code Section 2704 that would generally eliminate valuation discounts on transfers of interest in family entities. This means that practitioners should advise all wealthy clients to review planning options before year-end when these new rules might become effective.

The AICPA will examine the regulations and offer comments at the Dec. 1 IRS hearing; however, to be safe, advisers should proceed with the assumption they will take effect as is. Outlined below are four practical planning steps practitioners should address with their clients before year-end.

Step 1: Identify Clients Affected

Clients who own large real estate or valuable family businesses that can currently be discounted for transfer tax valuation purposes, but which may not be able to be discounted after the effective date of the regulations, should focus on planning for the new regulations. In 2012, when the estate tax exemption was modified from $5 million to $1 million, many clients rushed to modify their plans in advance of this change. We will likely experience similar activity this year, as clients strive to complete planning to address the discount rush before year-end.

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Mr. Miyagi Can Help You Master the Exam

Pat-Morita_(Karate_Kid)In the iconic 1984 film The Karate Kid, Daniel, the young protégé of Mr. Miyagi, can’t understand why he’s being told to do basic tasks such as paint the fence, sand the floor, or polish the car with “wax on, wax off.” Daniel thinks he should focus on karate moves. While he pushes through and does what Mr. Miyagi tells him, Daniel eventually realizes the value and relevance of these tasks when he begins to spar. Each task in its own way serves as the basis for developing Daniel’s martial arts skills and ultimately prepare him to win the tournament against the Cobra Kai.

While we’ll never know if Daniel subsequently dropped his martial arts training to pursue a career as a CPA, one thing is certain – Mr. Miyagi taught the essential lesson that learning the basics and understanding foundational concepts is the key to success.

CPA candidates can learn a thing or two from Mr. Miyagi’s teachings when it comes to understanding the importance of the content covered in the Business Environment and Concepts (BEC) section, and how to manage it when sitting for the Exam. Since the introduction of BEC, the section has long been a mix of essential general business information, including corporate governance, economics, information technology, and financial and operations management, which provides a foundation for the other sections of Audit and Attestation (AUD), Financial Accounting and Reporting (FAR) and Regulation (REG). As a component of the Exam, the section reinforces the value of core business knowledge that a CPA must bring to the table when providing audit, accounting and tax services.

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3 Ways to Make Your Value Clear to Clients

Shutterstock_244717456Value pricing has been a hot topic among CPA firms for a while now as it enables them to focus on what clients really care about. All firms should consider adopting this approach. But while you may be able to quantify the value of what you offer clients in time, it’s crucial not to stop there. Do you know, for example, what truly matters to your clients? What they value in their relationship with you and the services you provide? While your approach to billing is important, the most critical concern for any firm should be the client’s perception of value.  These three steps will help you better understand your own value, ensure that clients are aware of all that you’re worth to them and enable you to take your client relationships to a much deeper level.

  1. Make It Personal

It is important for clients to associate high-quality work and a strong relationship with you and your firm. If another firm promised to complete the engagement for less, would your clients run? You have to differentiate yourself from the competition in a unique way. As simple as it sounds, you should initiate regular meaningful contact with your clients throughout the year, not just when a due date is looming as many CPAs do. Establish a system or process for reaching out so that it happens methodically. Make sure clients realize you aren’t just the person who delivers only compliance work or some required paperwork, but rather the trusted business adviser they can count on.

You can radically change your client’s perception of your firm’s value when you:

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FASB Releases New Accounting Standard for Not-For-Profits


Shutterstock_238756393On August 18, 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued a standard that affects all not-for-profit entities issuing GAAP-basis financial statements. The new standard simplifies and improves how a not-for-profit entity classifies its net assets as well as the information it presents in financial statements and notes about its liquidity, financial performance and cash flows.

One goal of the standard is to improve how not-for-profits (like charities, foundations, colleges and universities, health care providers, religious organizations, trade associations and cultural institutions) communicate their financial performance and condition to their stakeholders.

 

Why a New Standard?

The current not-for-profit financial reporting model has held up well for more than 20 years, however, the FASB’s Not-for-Profit Advisory Committee and other stakeholders have reported that, while existing standards were sound, they could be improved to provide better information to users of not-for-profit financial statements.

Specifically, stakeholders voiced concerns about the following issues:

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5 Key Facts about the New FASB Leases Standard


Shutterstock_165181559What is a lease? And how should it be reported on a balance sheet? While your clients may not have spent much time pondering those questions in the past, the answers will take on new importance for them when a new Financial Accounting Standards Board standard on Leases becomes effective. While it’s true that the final guidance generally does not depart from existing GAAP as much as some earlier FASB proposals on this topic, practitioners should be prepared for significant changes in how all organizations that have lease assets—including private entities and not-for-profits—will account for leases. As practitioners begin to educate themselves on the guidance, here are five critical issues to keep in mind.  

  1. Lessees must now recognize operating lease assets and liabilities on the balance sheet. This is the most significant change, since it will require all organizations and their CPAs to take a different approach to lease accounting. Before this standard, U.S. GAAP only required this type of recognition for capital leases. Operating lease amounts were generally shown in the financial statements as rent expense on the income statement and in disclosures to the financial statements. In implementing the new guidance, entities will have to reconsider the ways they identify lease arrangements.

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Salsa, Scenery, and the CGMA


BSachdeva-3605Bikram Sachdeva loves salsa and bachata dancing. You might also find him capturing landscapes, skyscapes, and nature scenes with his camera during travels to Senegal, Ghana, Tanzania, Mongolia, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Jordan—countries where he’s monitored over $ 1.5 billion portfolio of projects.

Sachdeva is a CPA and CGMA, to name just two of five professional designations on his business card. “I hear a lot of stereotypes when people see my business card,” said Sachdeva, director of fiscal accountability at the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), an independent U.S. Government aid agency that works to reduce global poverty through economic growth. “Some people assume that because I’m a CPA, I’m not outgoing. They’re surprised when I tell them I love to dance and take pictures, especially because these interests tend to be outside the norm of what people expect from an accountant.”

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How to Supercharge Your Not-for-Profit’s Board to Achieve Scalable Impact

Shutterstock_174469097When considering the future success of a startup organization, thoughts naturally turn first to a clearly defined vision, mission and strategy for putting plans into action. After that, many ask, “How do I galvanize my staff and volunteers to lead?” Social impact organizations affect the most critical challenges facing our society-- for example, lifting individuals out of poverty, providing access to vital services and fighting inequality. Having the right staff is critical and having the right board of directors is equally important. Scaling an organization’s impact means not just maintaining core processes, but also constantly sharing knowledge to build the organization’s capacity to affect change. Without leadership to keep the organization focused, staff can fall victim to fighting the daily fires that are a distraction from the larger goal of expanding the organization’s reach.

So how can you supercharge your board of directors? Here are four things to consider:

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6 Planning Ideas for CPAs Who Have Aging Clients

Aging clientsYou might have noticed the “graying” of your clients and thought “how can I, as a CPA and trusted adviser, provide services that meet their changing needs? What are the practice considerations surrounding those services?”

Recently, we served on a panel at the AICPA Conference on Tax Strategies for the High-Income Individual that focused specifically on these issues. Consider some of the following ideas gleaned from the session and how you may be able to incorporate them into your practice:

  1. Services: Cognitive challenges often affect executive functioning, such as the ability to handle day-to-day finances. Services you might offer include automating finances such as bill paying, monitoring investments, and reviewing banking records to identify elder financial abuse. With clients more commonly living into their 90s and beyond, budgeting and the recurring financial responsibilities of an individual or family take on a very different nature.

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Advising on U.S. DOL’s Overtime Rule and Worker Classification Issues

Shutterstock_282297254I don’t know about you, but I’ve been having more conversations with my clients on employment issues lately. The new U.S. Department of Labor’s (DOL) overtime rule was announced May 18 and goes into effect December 1, 2016. Among other things, the new rule extends eligibility for overtime to certain white-collar workers by increasing the wage threshold from $455/week to $913/week ($47,476/year).

When my clients call with a “quick question” about the new rule, I chuckle to myself. These calls usually take an hour or more, as one question leads to another. These worker classification decisions can have major budget implications, particularly for small businesses and not-for-profits, and there is little time to come into compliance before December 1. In many small businesses without an HR department, employment issues fall under the finance or accounting function. 

Here is the basic guidance I’ve given to clients:

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The 4-Step Coach Approach to Client Service

CoachBefore CPA financial planners can provide expert counsel to clients, they first must get to know them in a very meaningful way. The process involves asking self-reflective questions and something I like to call the “coach approach” to client discovery.

The coach approach is a cooperative process, or a two-way street, and comes from material published by motivational expert Michael Pantalon. A good planner (the coach) guides and motivates, imparting knowledge along the way, but the client must also have some skin in the game with a commitment to executing the plan. After all, a basketball player could be coached to improve his game, but the player must commit to practice, and ultimately perform, before any real progress can be made.

Here are four steps to the “coach approach”:

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7 Models to Consider When Implementing the FASB’s New Credit Losses Standard


Shutterstock_408188569The Financial Accounting Standards Board has finalized its credit loss standard, Accounting Standards Update 2016-13—Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The new standard marks the end of accounting for credit losses using the Incurred Credit Loss model and replaces it with the Current Expected Credit Loss (CECL) model. The standard will have a significant impact on financial institutions. Additionally, it will apply to most debt instruments, trade receivables, lease receivables, reinsurance receivables, financial guarantee contracts and loan commitments.

Since the FASB did not restrict the type of methodologies institutions can use when implementing the new standard, I recommend that CPAs working at financial institutions, along with CPAs with financial institution clients, begin reviewing the different models now. You will want to consider the specific portfolio makeup of your or your clients’ institutions when deciding which method will work best. Here are some of the more common models currently in use by financial institutions that can be modified and used under the new standard:

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Passion for Performance: A CGMA’s Perspective

Lindsey Branston for AICPA_074Lindsey Branston, CPA, CGMA, is director of financial operations for the 70,000-member BMW Car Club of America and director of finance for the club’s charitable foundation in Greenville, S.C.

What’s your passion?

I’ve been fortunate to join an organization where my passion for strategy and financial analysis fit hand in glove with my love for cars and driving. As a CGMA, I know many financial strategies work on paper, but success depends on a deep understanding of how the club operates and of our members’ needs and desires. Our members are BMW enthusiasts—I’m one too. I go to car events all over the world to keep my finger on the pulse of BMW owner culture. Both my husband and I drive BMWs: an X5 SUV and a 435 convertible. Like many of our members, there’s a car I dream about owning. For me it’s an E9, a coupe built from 1968 to 1975.

How did you end up in a finance job for BMW?

When I was in public accounting, I worked with the BMW Car Club doing their audits. Then I started my own accounting firm and contracted with the club to provide financial management services. Since becoming a CGMA, I’ve expanded the work that I’ve done with the club and the foundation.

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The Current Expected Credit Loss Model is Here… Now What?

HamiltonYou know the feeling you get when you are excitedly looking forward to something? It just can’t come soon enough. For instance, you enter Broadway’s mega-popular Hamilton -- the musical lottery -- every morning and anxiously await the email saying that you won. Even if the chances are only 909 to 1. 

The financial institution community has been anticipating the release of the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s credit losses standard. We have been following the process since the beginning. We reviewed drafts and submitted comments along the way. We participated in focus groups and met with the FASB to discuss the community banks’ concerns. The final standard is here. Now what?

Last month, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326). The release of this new standard marks the end of accounting for credit losses using an incurred model. Institutions should not only consider all factors that have been incurred as of the reporting date, but also should estimate losses over the life of the loan. If an institution cannot estimate credit losses to the end of the loan’s life, taking into consideration any anticipated prepayments, it must estimate as far as it can and then revert back to the mean for the remaining years. This process sounds simple enough to implement, right?

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Do You Remember a Mentor’s Best Advice?

MentoringHave you ever approached a crossroads in your career and weren’t sure which path to take next? Or maybe you were struggling—with no luck—to gain more confidence and visibility in your job. If you were fortunate enough to have a mentor at these critical junctures, there’s a good chance you gained valuable insights into the best solutions and smartest next steps. In fact, 75% of executives in a poll by the Association for Talent Development said that a mentor had been critical in helping them ascend to their current position.

Mentoring includes imparting wisdom that the mentor has gained through a lifetime of business and personal experience. We reached out to members on LinkedIn and asked them to share some of the best advice they’d received from mentors throughout their careers. Here’s what they had to say:

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Modernizing Fax Filings with the IRS


Shutterstock_156974060Federal and state agencies, including the court systems, are modernizing by allowing the electronic filing of petitions and other court documents. For example, Alabama, Texas, Illinois and Missouri have e-filing systems for court petitions. In 2014, two federal courts (2nd and 9th Circuit Courts of Appeals) piloted an e-filing program for all courts in which the user is authorized to file electronically. The program is expected to become national in the next few years.

The IRS is also modernizing, although not as fast as many practitioners (or the AICPA) would like. Calls to the IRS and cases can be routed to any IRS employee or office all over the country. We are seeing more appeals conferences conducted by telephone with the various service centers instead of in person and expect Skype-type conferences to become more common. For many years, the IRS has electronically processed bank account and wage levies on delinquent accounts. Now, the IRS is also able to issue electronic summonses to eBay and PayPal.

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3 Things CPAs Need to Understand about Crowdfunding


Shutterstock_270504203If a client came to you 10 years ago with an innovative idea for a new product, such as a winter coat that is warmer and lighter than any other on the market—you might say “Great idea. How will you fund development of a prototype?” Back then seeking funding was not yet a simple task. But in 2016, there are myriad crowdfunding sites available to help would-be entrepreneurs take their ideas and make them a reality. As a CPA, you are in a position to help ensure your client seeks this funding properly and in a fiscally responsible manner.

You may not yet be familiar with the rules and regulations surrounding crowdfunding, but the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission released new rules in May. These guidelines, along with revisions last year to the existing Regulation A rules, expand the opportunities for small business capital raising by simplifying requirements for small businesses to access the capital markets. Both rules were issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act.

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The Impact of Brexit on Your Clients’ Investments

BrexitUncertainty related to Brexit – the recent vote in the United Kingdom (UK) to move away from the European Union (EU) – sent shock waves throughout Europe and foreign markets. Here in the United States, investors have also expressed concern about the volatility of their portfolios.

Chances are good that some of your clients have already contacted you with questions about how this will impact their personal finances. To help you have this conversation, we sought advice from three well-known professionals: Chris Benson, CPA/PFS, L.K. Benson & Company; Jean-Luc Bourdon, CPA/PFS, BrightPath Wealth Planning, LLC; and Michael E. Goodman, CPA/PFS, Wealthstream Advisors, Inc. Here are their observations:

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CPA Financial Planning: Rewarding in Every Way

Lori LuckA client comment last week propelled me back to my business decision 15 years ago to jump in with both feet to the world of CPA financial planning.

Pausing on her way out the door after a particularly fruitful discussion, she remarked, “We’ve been together a long time.”

Indeed. I’ve been a CPA and tax adviser for her small business for 25 years. I added the full scope of financial planning and investment monitoring for her when I found that clients needed more focus on these services and I was in the best position as a CPA to give them the advice they were seeking.

We’ve monitored her assets and her retirement planning. We’ve made decisions about Social Security. We’ve helped her iron out various issues with estate planning, as many people have after second marriages. Her children were young when we started; now they’re out of college and on their own. Now she’s retiring and has sold her business. And we’ve been with her every step of the way.

It’s been wonderful, for both of us, really. And it’s that way with many of our clients. Shifting our practice to focus more intentionally on financial planning is one of the best decisions I ever made.

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Lifelong Learning and Leadership: A CFO Perspective

YousefAwwadAs CFO of Portland Public Schools in Oregon, Yousef Awwad, CPA, CGMA, manages an operating budget approaching $1.2 billion annually. He is directly responsible for the school district’s finance, budget, purchasing, risk management, publication services and records management functions, comprising a total head count of 70 directors, managers and employees. Before coming to Portland in 2014, Yousef served as finance director for the Arizona Department of Education and as CFO and deputy superintendent for the Tucson Unified School District.

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Advising Same-Sex Married Clients After Medicare’s Rapid Changes

Same-sex coupleBy now, most CPAs should be familiar with tax strategies for same-sex couples, but due to a Supreme Court ruling in 2015, one possibly overlooked area CPA financial planners should address is the Medicare benefits available to couples in a same-sex marriage.

Before 2013, married couples of the opposite sex could qualify for Medicare benefits through their spouse, and before the U.S. Supreme Court’s Obergefell vs. Hodges ruling in 2015, state law still controlled whether a same-sex couple was treated as married. In layman’s terms, this resulted in inequality among same-sex couples, where some had full marriage rights because of the state in which they lived, while others were denied marriage rights because of their state of residence.

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Alternative Investments and UBIT: Weighing the Options


Keep calmPart two of a
two-part series on tax consequences of alternative investments. Part one can be found here.

Not-for-profits need to weigh their options carefully if they are thinking of adding alternative investments such as partnerships, private equity funds, real estate investment trusts and hedge funds to their portfolios.  As part of a well-designed investment strategy, alternative investment vehicles have the potential to provide greater returns than traditional stocks, bonds or money market funds, with the added benefit that they can counter risk exposure in volatile markets.

However, these investments can trigger tax liability under the unrelated business income tax (UBIT, pronounced “you-bit”) rules, and the resultant taxes (and accrued interest and penalties, if discovered subsequently) can take a bite out of an organization’s budget.

So what can be done to take the bite out of UBIT? 

There are basically three options:

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The Internet of Things is Already Here. Are You Ready For It?


Internet of thingsBy 2020, my house will have a smart refrigerator that will alert me when I am out of eggs or cheese. It will 'talk’ to my phone and ping me a list of items that I still need to buy as I'm leaving work and headed to the grocery store. On a macro level, cities will collect data on pedestrian flows and use big data to optimize energy use and traffic patterns. These are just a few of the 50 billion smart devices that we'll have by 2020.

AICPA staff recently gathered over coffee and discussed ideas and insights on the Internet of Things (IoT), a term you may start to hear being used more frequently. It refers to everyday wireless objects that communicate with each other over the internet and send useful information to consumers and businesses.

Truth is, many of these smart devices are already everywhere– and they are not just for the tech-savvy. You may already benefit from this technology without realizing it, like when you receive your online shopping purchases ahead of schedule. Retailers and distributors are employing smarter freight management systems that improve the efficiency of the shipping process.

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The Public Interest: Client Confidentiality Versus Disclosure of an Illegal Act

Muhammad AliThe late Muhammad Ali once said, “Silence is golden when you can’t think of a good answer.” What about when a CPA learns that a client is not complying with laws and regulations? Should the CPA maintain client confidentiality (a paramount pillar of the profession), or disclose information to appropriate authorities in order to protect investors, creditors, employees and even the general public?

In terms of non-compliance, is silence “golden”? Or, is the “good answer” to protect the public by disclosing information that is concealed by the boundaries of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct (Code)?

Over the next several months, the AICPA Professional Ethics Executive Committee (PEEC) will consider updates to the Code to assist AICPA members in determining the best course of action in such scenarios.

Specifically, the PEEC will consider converging the Code with an April 2016 pronouncement by the International Ethics Standards Board for Professional Accountants (IESBA), which is an independent standard setting body of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). The pronouncement provides guidance to professional accountants who encounter non-compliance by a client, employer, those charged with governance, or by management or employees of the client or employer.

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Client Advocacy: Susan Tillery, CPA/PFS, Takes a Unique Approach

Susan TilleryWhat does an ancient biblical word meaning “holy spirit” have to do with financial planning in the 21st Century? Plenty, according to Susan Tillery, CPA/PFS.

Susan is president and co-founder of Paraklete® Financial, Inc., a fully-integrated personal financial planning (PFP) firm with offices in Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina. With more than 30 years’ experience in financial services, Susan sticks to one, basic tenet: placing her clients and their financial well-being first. We recently sat down with Susan to learn about her unique service model, business mentality and outlook on the profession.

AICPA: Paraklete operates on a fee-for-service model and your catchphrase is “An Advocate in Financial Services.” What is this model all about, and how does the advocacy tagline ladder up to your firm’s operations?

Susan Tillery: “Your Advocate in Financial Services” comes directly from the meaning of the name of our firm; Paraklete is the Greek word for advocate, counselor and one who walks alongside you, which best describes what our business model is all about and what we offer our clients.

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In Case You Missed It: Golf, Beyoncé, and the Next Version of the CPA Exam

BeyonceAnother busy tax season has passed and I can see the heads of CPAs have now risen from the grindstone. While your focus was on tax business and financial statements over the last several months, you may have missed some important news.

Golfer Jordan Spieth’s dream of winning back-to-back Masters sunk on the 12th hole, Beyoncé (or Queen Bey) released her deeply personal Lemonade album and set off a social media storm, the Villanova Wildcats upset UNC at the NCAA tournament, and the highly anticipated “Batman vs. Superman” movie could barely muster 27% on Rotten Tomatoes.

Oh, and along the lines of something important to the AICPA and the CPA profession, we announced details about the next version of the Uniform CPA Examination, which launches on April 1, 2017.

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5 Steps to Transform Leadership Theory into Practice

LeadershipMost of us have read numerous books on leadership development theory, because they are excellent resources that offer valuable insights. However, you need to do more than just read and understand these books for them to have any real value. You need to be personally inspired and motivated to get the most out of such personal success literature. Basically, you have to walk the walk. Embody the teachings found in these books and demonstrate positive leadership behavior every single day. The question is: how?

As everyone knows, old habits die hard. Changing behavior is frustratingly challenging, even if the habits you are trying to adopt are positive. That’s why it’s extremely useful to have a roadmap. Aristotle said, “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.”

Here are five steps that can guide you in successfully adopting positive leadership behaviors to transform yourself into an authentic leader.

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Alternative Investments and UBIT: Knowing is Half the Battle

Part one of a two-part series on tax consequences of alternative investments



Income diversificationIn the aftermath of the Great Recession, charitable organizations emerged as increasingly sophisticated savvy investors. At a time when donations dwindled and endowments were shrinking, the not-for-profit sector sets its sights on income diversification, including alternative investment vehicles such as partnerships, private equity funds, real estate investment trusts and hedge funds. No longer just the bailiwick of elite institutions, alternative investments are continuing to grow in popularity. However, the tax compliance issues associated with these investments can sneak up on unsuspecting not-for-profits, many of whom are unaccustomed to paying federal income taxes due to their preferential, tax-exempt status.

When it comes to understanding unrelated business income taxes (UBIT), knowing is half the battle. I find that it is helpful to explain to clients the history behind the legislation that brought us to where we are today. The tax rules regarding UBIT are a result of legislation passed by Congress in 1950 to ostensibly level the playing field between commercial entities and tax-exempt not-for-profit organizations that would otherwise have a built-in market advantage when conducting similar businesses due to their preferential tax status. Organizations that engage in unrelated activities pay a tax on the income from those activities at corporate rates (or at trust rates for exempt organizations that are created as trusts) unless a specific exemption or exception applies.

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What it Means to Be There for Your Clients as They Age

Elderly couple review financesMost people don’t think they need to plan for getting older. That is, until they are forced to make unexpected, and potentially no-win, decisions, or, perhaps they fall victim to a scam that targets elderly people. In the best cases, the reality of aging means the person merely finds they can’t do something they used to do with ease. Unfortunately, in many cases, the reality doesn’t hit them until after they’ve experienced a problem.

Getting older can be a challenge to your clients’ personal and financial security if their physical and mental capacity start to wane. As their trusted adviser, you can help your clients safely ease into the later decades of their lives by organizing, simplifying and monitoring their finances, and building important relationships to help them address senior issues. As you gain more experience in this area of practice, you may find yourself identifying a range of later life planning services that can offer significant practice development opportunities.

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Use a Flowchart to Illustrate Client Wealth Transfer Goals

You consider yourself to be proactive. By age X, you have a well-thought-out estate plan. Your will states that 80% of your wealth will be distributed to your two children, while 20% will be donated to a charity close to your heart. All of this is set in stone, right?

Once estate documents are drafted, some may feel confident that their wishes and intent will always be carried out; yet, this is typically not always the case. While estate documents are static, a client’s life is dynamic and ever changing. CPA financial planners are uniquely positioned to ensure a client’s wealth transfer goals are continually being met.

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How to Talk to Not-for-Profit Boards About Their Responsibilities


Board of directorsAs a CPA and community volunteer, I’m often asked to talk to not-for-profit boards about financial and governance topics. My presentations often generate lively discussions. Some people are surprised to learn that although it is not necessary to be a financial or business expert to serve on a board, there are some broad fiduciary responsibilities that apply to all board members. Most nonprofits are formed as corporations under their particular state’s law (I’ll leave the nuances to the lawyers), but a cornerstone of these laws is that board members owe a fiduciary duty to the corporation they serve on. A fiduciary responsibility is defined as the obligation to act in the best interest of another party, and this pertains to all matters regarding the not-for-profit, including its financial oversight. There are three basic responsibilities that apply to board members: the duty of obedience, duty of care and duty of loyalty.

Duty of Obedience

When I explain that all board members can be equally responsible and liable to safeguard the not-for-profit’s assets and interests, the response I often receive is, “The entire board? Even commissioners?” or “But I’m just a commissioner. I shouldn’t be held responsible!” The duty of obedience means board members are accountable for internal laws (that is, bylaws and policies) and all applicable external laws and regulations. For instance, the IRS can hold each board member personally liable for failure to pay certain taxes incurred by the organization. It does not matter if they are the Chair or President or “just” a member at-large; generally, all board members have responsibility.

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